Economic Geology

Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes such as metals, nonmetallic minerals, construction-grade stone, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and water.

Mining Geology

Mining Geology is an applied science which combines the principles of economic geology and mining engineering to the development of a defined mineral resource to economically extract the ore. The mining of sand, gravel, building stones, non-metallic minerals, metal ores, coal etc. apply various principles and techniques.

Petroleum Geology

Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.


Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials. It is considered a geoscience and involves the exploration, mining, cutting, polishing and quality testing of gems.

Mineral Economics

Mineral economics is the academic discipline that investigates and promotes understanding of economic and policy issues associated with the production and use of mineral commodities.

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