Types of rocks and their identification


Staff member
Jun 3, 2020
You may come across a random rock and have difficulty in identifying it. The physical characteristics of a rock give clues to its identification. Most of the regular rocks can be easily identified based on the observation of physical characteristics.

Types of rocks
There are primarily 3 types of rocks - Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic based on their origin.
  • Igneous rocks are solidified lava or magma, which usually contain coarse crystals.
  • Sedimentary rocks are solidified sediment, which usually appear like river deposits and sometimes contain fossils.
  • Metamorphic rocks are deformed variants of other 2 types of rocks, which usually contain foliation marks.
Identification of rocks
The Igneous rocks can be identified based on well-developed crystals or glassy appearance. The sedimentary rocks can be identified based on layers, animal or fluvial marks, fossils etc. The metamorphic rocks can be identified based on the deformation, foliation and lineation. The identification of a specific rock type requires the study of minerals.


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