Who is known as the Father of modern Geology?


Staff member
Jun 3, 2020
(A) Abraham Gottlob Werner
(B) James Hutton
(C) Florence Bascom
(D) William Smith

Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 1749 – 30 June 1817) was a German geologist who proposed a theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust. He is remembered for his theory on chronological succession in rocks which is the basis of Geological time scale. He has been called the father of German geology.

Florence Bascom (July 14, 1862 – June 18, 1945) was the second woman in U.S.A. to earn her Ph.D. in geology. She was also the first woman to work for US Geological Survey. Many geologists consider her to be the first American woman geologist. She was known for her discoveries in the field and mentoring several women in geology.
"The fascination of any search after truth lies not in the attainment, which at best is found to be very relative, but in the pursuit, where all the powers of the mind and character are brought into play and are absorbed by the task. One feels oneself in contact with something that is infinite and one finds joy that is beyond expression in sounding the abyss of science and the secrets of the infinite mind." - Florence Bascom

William Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) is the first person to create a geological map for any country. He created the first geological map of most of the Great Britain which served as a basis for all others. His work was an important foundation for the work of Charles Darwin. A crater on Mars was named after him. He became known as the father of English Geology.

James Hutton (3 Jun 1726 - 26 Mar 1797) was a Scottish Geologist, referred to as the father of modern Geology for his contribution in establishing Geology as a modern science. Many concepts in Geology were derived from his work.

Answer: (B) James Hutton


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